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International Journal of Biology and Biological Sciences

International Journal of Biology and Biological Sciences, Vol. 1(2), pp. 034-046, December 2012 ISSN 2327-3062 ©2012 Academe Research Journals


Full Length Research Paper

"Toxic effects of 4-nonylphenol on the embryonic development of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)"

Alaa El-Din H. Sayed1*, Usama M. Mahmoud1, Imam A. Mekkawy2

1Zoology department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, 71516 Assiut, Egypt.

2Biology department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia.

Accepted 29 December, 2012


The present study investigated effects of environmental relevant concentrations of 4-nonylphenol (0.05 to 0.08 to 0.1 mg/l) on the reproduction and embryonic developmental stages of catfish (Clarias gariepinus). To determine the effect of 4-nonylphenol on reproduction; catfish were exposed to three concentrations of 4-nonylphenol in a flow-through-system during spawning period (some for one week and other for two weeks). At an estimated 4-nonylphenol concentration the fertilization rate and hatching rate were significantly decreased with 4-nonylphenol concentrations increasing while the incubation period, the mortality rate and malformed embryos ratio were increased. Also, the development of embryos and larvae was affected by 4-nonylphenol in terms of morphological changes and histopathological alterations.

Key words: 4-nonylphenol, hatching, mortality, embryos, Clarias gariepinus.